Are you confused about what you should eat? If so, you are in good company. With so many diets and ways to eat, it can certainly be confusing. The one thing I know is that at midlife and beyond, many women (and men) want to eat foods that will help them balance their hormones and stay healthy and fit, so they are able to do the things they enjoy. And more and more people want to feel good about their impact on the planet. That’s a lot to think about!
For decades I have given women specific advice on what to eat and how to use their bodies’ responses to food as information. Here is my updated advice on how you can consume the healthiest food for your body in light of so many diets and so much conflicting information.
10 Food Rules to Help You Flourish
When you are young, your body is forgiving. That’s why many women can eat pizza, drink alcohol, and exercise infrequently and still remain thin, relatively healthy, and have enough energy. But, when you approach perimenopause, what you eat and how you live make a huge difference in how you feel and how you experience menopause and your later years. For one thing, making poor food choices and being constantly on the run can set the stage for hormonal imbalance. When insulin, estrogen, and eicosanoids become imbalanced, you are at increased risk for developing heart disease, high blood pressure, arthritis, and cancer.
Here are my suggestions for how to eat to flourish:
- Remove sugar from your diet. This means remove – or really cut down – on the refined and high-glycemic index carbohydrates. But, remember that not all carbohydrates are created equal. Whether certain foods with a high-glycemic index, such as baked potatoes or bananas, can be part of a healthy diet for you depends upon your unique metabolism. If you are a true carbohydrate addict, you need to find what foods are healthy for you. I find that eliminating refined carbohydrates, such as sugar, white rice, bread, alcohol, and foods made with white flour, such as muffins, bagels, pasta, pretzels and other snack foods, helps the body burn stored fat and keeps insulin and blood sugar levels normal.
- Enjoy plants. Fruits and vegetables should make up at least half of your plate at mealtime. Think color, and you’ll be on the right path because the deep pigments in these foods contain powerful antioxidants. Go for broccoli, green leafy vegetables, berries, red, yellow, and green peppers, and tomatoes, and vary your choices through the seasons. You may also want to take inspiration from other areas of the world where much of the food is plant-based, such as China and the Mediterranean.
- Eat some protein. Eating a little protein can go a long way to helping you feel full and may prevent over-eating. Good options for protein include organic eggs, fish, lean meat, and full-fat dairy. Vegetarian alternatives to animal protein, such as whole, non-GMO soy, tofu, or tempeh are also good for some people. In addition, beans contain protein but also contain a considerable amount of carbohydrates. If you are a true carbohydrate addict and you are perimenopausal, beans may be too high in carbohydrates for you.
- Don’t be afraid of fat. The low-fat diet fads of the past, which reached their peak in the 1980s and early 1990s, had women brainwashed into believing that fat was the enemy. In their attempt to eliminate saturated fat from their diets, many women eliminated all fat. I watched my patients complain of sallow skin, brittle hair and nails, susceptibility to infection, inability to concentrate, and weight gain despite their rigid diets. None of these women were getting enough essential fatty acids, which are needed to assist the body in many important functions, including those of the brain and nervous system. Good sources of EFAs include eggs, walnuts, and wild-harvested cold-water fish.
- Consume whole grains in moderation. Even if you have eliminated refined grains, if you are a carbohydrate-sensitive person, you may still have problems with whole wheat, whole rye, whole oat, or millet flour. Research shows that the degenerative diseases that currently plague Americans didn’t arrive on the scene until agriculture became widespread. In fact, archeologic evidence show that many ancient Egyptians were fat and had dental disease associated with a grain-based diet.
- Protect your body with antioxidants. Antioxidants combat cellular damage from free radicals, which are known to be a cause of chronic conditions such as heart disease, cataracts, macular degeneration, and cancer. Antioxidants are found in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially brightly colored ones. Food is the best source for antioxidants, but if you don’t always get enough in your diet, high-quality supplements can provide significant protection.
- Try intermittent fasting. For many years, doctors, including myself, recommended eating at least three meals per day. Now, we know that our bodies were designed for periods of intermittent fasting. That’s because intermittent fasting helps to lower your insulin levels. There are different ways to incorporate intermittent fasting into your diet, and everyone’s body is different, so be sure to use your intuition. Learn more about intermittent fasting here.
- Employ the 80-20 rule. I have always been a huge proponent of the 80/20 rule, which means that it’s okay to give in to cravings 20 percent of the time. When you do, try to indulge with high-quality choices. A good strategy is to find a healthier substitute. For example, I use Stevia in place of white sugar; I savor a square of organic dark chocolate instead of gulping down a pile of stale, leftover Halloween candy; or I eat a thin crust pizza with lots of veggies instead of a deep-dish pizza with a thick crust. What’s important is you’re still choosing a better quality of life.
- Remember your heritage. Reaching and maintaining a healthy body composition and vibrant health through the right food choices has a lot to do with your heritage. For example, people of European heritage may do better on milk, rye, and yogurt while people of Asian heritage do fine with white rice.
- Drink more water. Optimal hydration is crucial to maintaining every organ and system in your body. You have probably been told that you need to drink eight glasses of water per day (eight ounces each) and even more if you exercise. This is partially true, but believe it or not, eating your water is the best way to get hydration to all of your cells. In fact gel water from plants is far more hydrating than plain water and more apt to get to the right places in the body, including your cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid that bathes your brain), your bloodstream, your gut lining, your respiratory system and your fascia.
How to Eat Responsibly
With all the different ways of eating that are popular today—including vegan, vegetarian, Paleo, pegan, plant-plus, Keto, and more—a movement that is catching on involves eating responsibly. This means that you choose to eat foods that have been produced sustainably and with respect for the people who produce them, the animals (if involved), and for the planet as a whole.
Now, I’m not worried about the climate change. The Earth’s climate has varied for as long as the planet has existed, with natural cold and warm phases. The Little Ice Age ended around 1850. So, it’s no surprise that we are experiencing a period of warming now. The focus on climate change is just the latest narrative being pushed down our throats as a means of controlling us. However, I am concerned about the quality of our food, the soil in which it is grown, and the livelihood of the people who grow food on a smaller scale.
Here are 5 easy ways to eat responsibly:
- Buy locally. Purchasing food from your local farmers is a great way to support your local economy. It may also be more cost efficient since gas prices have never been higher. Plus, when you buy local, you have the opportunity to meet your local growers and learn about how your food was grown.
- Eat seasonally. On a practical level, eating seasonally may reduce transportation-related food Followers of Ayurveda typically practice Ayurvedic Ritucharya—a way of eating (and living) that observes the rhythms of nature to balance the Doshas. There are 6 seasons all ruled by a certain taste and specific foods for that season.
- Plan ahead. Planning your meals not only helps you eat healthier, but it can also reduce the amount of food you throw out, which can help reduce the amount of methane emissions from landfills.
- Read labels. Look for environmental and ethical labels on your food packaging that tell you how your food was produced. Labels to look for include Fair Trade, USDA Organic, RSPO (Palm Oil Free), American Grassfed, Animal Welfare Approved, Best Aquaculture Practices, Bird Friendly Coffee, California Certified Organic Farmers – CCOF, Certified Humane Raised and Handled, Marine Stewardship Council, Protected Harvest, Rainforest Alliance Certified, Salmon-Safe. You may also want to investigate other certifications on your own depending on what you are passionate about and what changes you are able to make to your diet and routine.
- Dine at restaurants that buy from local farmers. The food-to-table movement has been around for a while, making it easier to find restaurants that support local farmers. The food at these restaurants is fresh and seasonal, and the menus often change more frequently based on what’s available from local farms. So, it’s a win-win.
More Tips for Eating to Flourish
Eating high-quality food is one of the easiest ways to create health on a daily basis and to help the planet. And, the best way to enjoy your food to is eat mindfully. Mindful eating is the practice of deliberately noticing every sense associated with eating while leaving your emotions out of the experience. This rewires the brain and, over time, helps to restore your intuition around eating. It also reduces stress and creates a more positive relationship with food. This contributes to your enjoyment and to your overall well-being.
Here’s how to practice mindful eating:
• Put down your phone. Turn off all electronic distractions before eating, including the television and all personal electronics such as your tablet and phone. This will help set the stage for being able to focus on eating and help you pick up on your body’s sensations, including hunger, thirst, and satiety before you over indulge.
• Practice gratitude. Supermarkets make it easy to forget where our food comes from—the animals, the farmers who raised them, the people who prepared it and shipped it. Focus on the journey your food has made to get to your table and offer gratitude. This will help make each meal more satisfying.
• Focus on your food. Instead of mindlessly putting food into your mouth and gulping it down, take time to look at your food. Notice the colors and the aromas. Taste each bite and try to differentiate the unique flavors of the ingredients.
• Slow Down. Chew your food slowly. This will help you taste your food and will improve your digestion. You can also try putting down your utensils between bites while you chew. Take notice of how you feel after each bite. Stop when you are full to prevent overeating, indigestion, and bloating.
• Notice your emotions. Do you feel happy or a sense of guilt when you eat? Is mealtime stressful? If so, ask yourself “why?” Once you identify your emotions, accept them and, without fighting them, simply release them.
• Don’t eat and run. Instead of eating leftovers out of the container over the kitchen sink (we’ve all done this!), designate a place to eat and create a bit of ambiance. Plate your food (yes, even leftovers) and sit down to enjoy it. Stay seated for the entirety of your meal. This will help you focus on the act of eating.
• Include loved ones. If you want your family to eat mindfully, schedule a regular time for your meal (usually dinner is easiest for getting everyone together). Make a rule that no one leaves the table until dinner is over. This may be an hour each evening or once per week, depending on your schedule. While the family is congregated, encourage everyone to enjoy their senses of smell and taste while they eat. Be sure to show gratitude to your family for joining in the experience together.
• Eat purposefully. If you are an emotional eater or someone who is in the habit of eating a pick-me-up snack every day at 3 pm, ask yourself “why?” You may learn that you are in the habit of doing this out of stress or boredom. Try taking a short walk instead. If you are at work, you can do some desk stretches. Also, if you are someone who uses food as a reward – as in “When I finish this project, I’ll treat myself to a pizza” (or whatever), ask yourself “Is this really a treat?” In other words, is this how you want to treat your body?
One Food to Avoid
As I have said above, I believe the 80-20 rule is a good way to approach eating. However, new research is showing that there may be one food we should avoid all together: Linoleic Acid!
Linoleic acid (LA) is an Omega-6 polyunsaturated acid (PUFA). PUFA’s are missing multiple hydrogen atoms, which makes them highly susceptible to oxidation. This means that, compared to saturated fats, PUFAs break down more easily. When they break down in your body, they get stored in your tissues and cells.
While very low levels of LA (roughly 1% of caloric intake) are necessary for survival, high levels of LA contribute to inflammation and chronic disease including heart disease, cancer, dementia, diabetes, obesity and more. In fact, the increasing rates of heart disease since the mid 1900’s seems to be directly related to our consumption of dietary LA.
Up to 80% of all Omega-6 fats in the average diet come from LA in the form of seed oils and including vegetable oils, which are in just about everything we consume. The seed oils with the highest levels of LA are grapeseed, safflower, sunflower, soybean, cottonseed, corn, rice bran, peanut and canola. The best oils to consume for lower LA content are palm, olive and avocado.
Of course packaged food, fast food, bottle salad dressings, and basically anything not found on the perimeter of your grocery store are most likely going to contain high levels of LA.
Are You Ready to Eat Bugs?
Most of you have probably noticed the push toward eliminating meat from our diet. But, why?
And what will replace it? Well, the “why” is a longer discussion that I can only have over on my True North Podcast. The “what” is bugs! They want us eating bugs.
And the truth is, you already are. For decades the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been urging people to eat more insects as a way to fight world hunger, stating that the demand for animal protein is set to double by 2050. And it’s no surprise that the World Economic Forum is also pro-eating insects. And they have identified over 1,900 species of insects for us to eat!
While eating a grasshopper or scorpion (or more likely a cricket or ant) on occasion probably won’t kill you, “edible insects” as a primary source of protein is not a trend I’m following.
For one thing, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Scientific Committee in 2015 published an initial risk assessment of using insects for human consumption and animal feed. The report stated concerns regarding “potential biological and chemical hazards, as well as allergenicity and environmental hazards, associated with farmed insects used in food and feed taking into account the entire chain, from farming to the final product.” The EFSA “highly recommended” further studies. This may be due to the fact that using insects as feed for farmed animals was previously banned due to the risk of prion-derived diseases.
But fast-forward a few short years to a 2019 study and now insects are being widely used as food and feed. Of course, by 2022 all concerns regarding insects as food or feed disappeared. A new report in the Journal of Future Foods entitled, “Edible insects as future food: chances and challenges” promotes the nutritional quality of insects as superior to bird and mammal protein, and insect food production as sustainable and economical.
My the “science” evolved quickly!
In any event, if you are like me and you prefer to take a hard pass on eating bugs the easiest thing to do is avoid eating heavily processed foods. If you eat anything that is processed, packaged, canned, or prepared you are eating bugs. And this is intentional! For example, cochineal extract (from cochineal insects) is used as a natural coloring in many foods. If you think this is better than eating chemical colorants you may be mistaken. Cochineal extract is highly allergenic and has long been tied to cases of anaphylactic shock. In 1998 the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) petitioned the FDA to require clearer labeling for foods containing cochineal extract. Since 2009, the FDA has required cochineal extract and carmine to be identified in ingredients lists. Look for “cochineal extract,” “cochineal,” “carmine,” “brilliant scarlet,” “carminic acid,” or “Natural Red No. 4” on the label. By the way, cochineal extract is also used in textiles and cosmetics.
Lac bugs are another bug you may commonly eat without knowing it. Lac bugs are used to provide a waxy coating (think shellac) on candy and chocolate. You can identify these bugs on the label by looking for ingredients called “candy glaze,” “resin glaze,” “natural food glaze,” “confectioner’s glaze,” “confectioner’s resin,” “Lac resin,” “Lacca,” or “gum lac.”
Some of the most common processed and packaged foods contain the highest levels of insects. These include pasta, coffee beans, raisins, peanut butter, Fig Newtons, canned mushrooms, canned tomatoes, frozen broccoli, fruit juice, blueberries, raspberries, and more.
Even if you are willing to try bugs as a source of protein, it’s also important to know that insects contain similar allergens to crustaceans, mollusks, and dust mites. So, if you have an allergy to shellfish or dust mites it’s best to steer clear of “edible insects.” And remember insects are being added to animal feeds, including farmed fish. So, if you don’t know what your food is eating, you may want to find out!
Are you ready to eat bugs? Please leave your comments below.