5 Top Health Benefits of Coffee

And When to Avoid it

by Christiane Northrup, M.D.

Medical Insights & News Preventative Medicine

If there is one question I hear often, it’s “Should I drink coffee?” According to a 2017 Gallup Poll, two thirds of Americans drink at least one cup of coffee every day. This figure has remained steady for 20 years. And, just to set the record straight, let me tell you that I enjoy drinking coffee!

But, for years doctors warned their patients not to drink coffee. In fact, coffee was believed to cause a number of health concerns, including heart disease and cancer. However, it turns out that earlier studies were wrong. (They did not control multiple other factors that lead to heart disease and serious health concerns.)

Now, studies show that coffee has a ton of health benefits, including protection against Parkinson’s disease, type 2 diabetes, and liver disease, including liver cancer. Coffee also appears to improve cognitive function (possibly due to caffeine’s effect of blocking adenosine and thus increasing brain activity) and may decrease your risk for depression.

5 Top Health Reasons to Drink Coffee

  1. Protects your brain. According to a literature review of studies, coffee can protect your brain against certain neurodegenerative diseases including dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Coffee consumption is also shown to slow down the progression of dementia in the elderly.
  2. Reduces your risk of developing diabetes. One systematic review of studies shows that habitual coffee consumption is associated with a substantially lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Another review showed that each additional cup of coffee is associated with a 7% decrease in risk.
  3. Lowers your risk of developing certain cancers.  Studies show that drinking coffee is associated with a decreased risk of certain cancers, including liver cancer (and cirrhosis of the liver), oral/pharyngeal cancer, and advanced prostate cancer. Other studies show that coffee intake is inversely related to the risk of developing colorectal cancer. Coffee is also associated with decreased estrogen—high levels of which are linked to some cancers.
  4. Safeguards your heart. Regular coffee drinking has been linked to a lower risk of coronary heart disease in women. Furthermore, people who drink more than two cups a day have a 20% lower risk of stroke compared with those who drink less. And, one study showed that coffee drinkers have 40% less calcium in their arteries compared with non-coffee drinkers.
  5. May increase fat burning. Coffee contains caffeine. The caffeine in coffee can help to boost your metabolic rate and mobilize fat from your tissues so you burn fat for fuel. Caffeine also improves exercise performance, which can help you burn fat.

6 More Reasons You May Want to Drink Coffee

In addition to the top five health-protective benefits, regular coffee drinking may also:

  1. Lower the risk of certain types of arthritis in men. One prospective study by the American College of Rheumatology showed that coffee can reduce the risk of developing gout, the most common inflammatory arthritis in men.
  2. Promote a longer lifespan. Due to the lowered risk of cancer, heart disease, diabetes and other diseases linked to premature death, studies show that coffee drinkers live longer.
  3. Protect your eyes. A study showed that chlorogenic acid (CLA) found in coffee may prevent retinal damage caused by oxidative stress.
  4. Make you more coordinated. A study shows that coffee may improve psychomotor coordination. In fact, there is even a term called “pre-coffee coordination” that refers to clumsy behavior before having your cup of coffee.
  5. Improve your gut health. A study shows that coffee consumption can increase the number of healthy bacteria (Bifidobacterium spp) in your gut.
  6. Provide necessary antioxidants. Roasted coffee contains a mixture of over 1000 bioactive compounds, with therapeutic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, antifungal, and anticancer effects.

When to Avoid Coffee

While there are definitely many good reasons to drink coffee, there are also some people who would be better off avoiding it. For example, if you metabolize caffeine slowly, you could end up suffering from side effects that range from annoying to potentially serious, including caffeine-induced wakefulness that can disrupt your sleep quality to an increased risk of myocardial infarction.

While everyone metabolizes caffeine at their own rate, the normal half-life of caffeine is 4-6 hours. Women tend to metabolize caffeine more slowly than men, so even one cup of coffee in the morning could affect your sleep quality later if you are sensitive. Also, people who have the CYP1A2 gene, which makes you metabolize caffeine very slowly, will become very jittery after just one cup. And remember that decaffeinated coffee contains some caffeine. So, if you are sensitive or a slow metabolizer, it’s best to stay away from coffee altogether.

You should also avoid coffee if you have arrhythmia (an irregular heart beat), suffer from anxiety, have trouble sleeping, are pregnant, or are trying to get pregnant or experience urinary frequency since coffee increases the speed at which your kidneys produce urine. In addition, if you suffer from frequent headaches or migraines, you may want to skip the coffee. Also, if you have digestive issues you’ll want to be sure coffee doesn’t cause more problems. Finally, children should really not drink coffee or other caffeinated beverages.

What Type of Coffee Should You Drink?

As with anything else you put in your body, it’s best to drink the highest quality coffee you can afford. Higher quality coffees tend to have lower levels of mycotoxins, pesticide residue, and chemicals such as acrylamide, a toxin that can form naturally from chemical reactions in certain types of foods, including coffee. Darker roast coffees typically have less acrylamide.

Mycotoxins in coffee are formed by mold that is commonly found in coffee beans. And certain processing methods, including the natural process of the leaving the coffee seed intact while drying, can increase mycotoxins. One mycotoxin in coffee is called Aflatoxin B1, and it is a known carcinogen. 

In general, coffee that comes from higher elevations, such as Ethiopia, Columbia, Kenya, Guatemala, and Papua New Guinea, have less mold and fewer mycotoxins. And, to put the whole mycotoxin thing in perspective, it’s important to understand that many foods contain mycotoxins. Coffee is definitely on the better end of the spectrum. Other foods, including wheat, peanuts, corn, and even dairy, eggs, meat, and chicken can be more problematic on this front. If you are concerned about mycotoxin exposure or struggling with chronic health issues, you may want to consider drinking coffee that is certified mycotoxin-free such as Purity Coffee or Bulletproof.

Often, drinking organically grown coffee solves many of the concerns people have about consuming coffee. Organic coffee is produced with organic fertilizers, such as coffee pulp, manure, or compost. In addition, organic coffee may have higher levels of antioxidants. And, there are certainly environmental and agricultural benefits to supporting companies that use sustainable methods.

I was introduced to Dean’s Beans a couple years ago. Their coffee is organically grown, fair trade, kosher, and completely sustainable. Even the bags are compostable. I feel great about drinking it because Dean, the founder, has been working to make the world a better place for over 20 years with programs such as the women’s health and loan program in Guatemala and the international development program, Coffee Kids, Inc., the first non-profit development group in the coffee industry. And, the people involved with the growing and packaging make a good living. Of course, it’s delicious.

6 Ways to Make Your Coffee Even Healthier

It goes without saying that even the healthiest foods or ingredients can turn unhealthy depending on how you prepare them. So here are a few ways to keep your cup of java healthy.

  1. Skip the sugar. Avoid loading your coffee with sugar. If you like a sweeter taste, try adding stevia instead. You can also add healthy fats to your coffee such as MCT oil, coconut oil, and grass-fed butter, which can help to keep your blood sugar stable and stave off sugar cravings.
  2. Avoid low-fat dairy and non-dairy creamers. If you like a creamier cup of coffee, add full fat dairy from grass-fed cows.
  3. Make your coffee with filtered water. Coffee is 99 percent water. Whether you like drip coffee, French press, or cold brew, using filtered water will not only make your coffee taste better, but it will reduce the number of bacteria and impurities.
  4. Use paper filters. According to the American Heart Association, paper filters remove cafestol, a compound that increases LDL cholesterol. So, it’s possible that unfiltered coffee could pose a higher health risk by increasing cholesterol. Paper filters reduce the amounts of cafestol while still allowing you to get the caffeine and beneficial antioxidants.
  5. Add collagen. Glycine-rich collagen can help reduce inflammation, help repair tissue, and reduce joint pain. 
  6. Try herbal coffee. If you are not a coffee enthusiast, try an herbal coffee such as chicory root, dandelion root, yerba mate, or blends that contain mushrooms, adaptogens such as ashwagandha, and other Ayurvedic herbs.

Do you drink coffee? I’d love to hear how you take yours. Please leave me your comments below.

Last Updated: September 24, 2019

Christiane Northrup, M.D.

Christiane Northrup, M.D.

Christiane Northrup, M.D., is a visionary pioneer and a leading authority in the field of women’s health and wellness. Recognizing the unity of body, mind, and spirit, she empowers women to trust their inner wisdom, their connection with Source, and their ability to truly flourish.

Comments

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  1. Anjali
    2 weeks ago

    I drank my first coffee with coconut water today- delicious, cooling and soothing- it was a hot and smoky day in Sydney today

  2. pauline scott
    2 months ago

    No I don’t drink coffee have always thought it wasn’t good for me to drink for health reasons, plus the caffeine keeps me awake at night even when I drink it earlier in the day. It is interesting to read that there are good benefits to drinking coffee and caffeine.

  3. Claudia E. Darbie
    2 months ago

    I love coffee. I always have. I prefer a French roast, of sort. And I recently had a Limited Edition from a local retailer that was from Ethiopia, and it was one of the best coffees I have ever had. Hard to come by unfortunately.

    I drink coffee in the morning and in the afternoon. Not a fan of all of this latte, etc. stuff with loads of stuff in it. I just love a good coffee with double milk and sugar.

  4. Lyn
    2 months ago

    Thank you for this info. I see that Connie asked about osteoporosis and coffee. I did not see response.. would you please comment. I would be interested for myself and family. I enjoy a cup of dark roast from freshly ground beans each morning, thanks to my husband.

  5. Flo
    2 months ago

    I always enjoy your newsletters, very informative but although there may be some positives to coffee what about the negative consequences such as ; the impaired absorption of nutrients due to the “flattening out of the cilia , the fine hairlike structures found within the intestines, coffee drinking makes them sticky and flattens them out , also Calcium , it gets leached out of the bones from the diuretic effect that coffee has on the body so women after menopause should be especially wary .

  6. Amanda
    3 months ago

    I am *definitely* a slow caffeine metabolizer and am extremely affected — I get jittery very quickly, impatient, anxious, and generally terrible to be around. I’d heard it was genetic but didn’t know the specific gene variant until this article, which is a helpful reference. My father is also extremely sensitive and won’t even have an Oreo cookie at night. I can’t really tolerate any caffeinated coffee and if I’m served one accidentally — WOW — I will be off the walls and my day is kind of shot from there; no sleep until 2am even after lots of water. My travel mug says “decaf only” and I’m very careful about where and when I get coffee in case it may be contaminated…but sometimes there are mix-ups! It should be a controlled substance for people like me — dangerous and hard to get out of my system. Wish I had the normal genes, because I love the taste of coffee, and visiting coffee shops — in many countries there is no decaf. I drank decaf coffee for awhile, sometimes mixed with either cardamon or chicory, and now I mainly drink a mix of Teeccino (mostly chicory) and malted/roasted barley/chicory coffee substitutes.

  7. Christiane Northrup
    3 months ago

    I order Dean’s online. Wonderful website! Very inspiring.

  8. Christiane
    3 months ago

    YES!!!

  9. Patty Coyne
    3 months ago

    Thank you so much for the updates specific to women’s health. Signing up for your newsletter as I am wanting to reduce Facebook time.

    1. Christiane
      3 months ago

      So glad that you visited here. I feel we all would do well to decrease our facebook time!!

  10. Anne
    3 months ago

    Thank you so much for this! I have always enjoyed coffee and feel assured in my choice to drink it after reading your blog. I am sensitive to too much caffeine, and wonder about your thoughts or any information on decaf or halfcaf coffee?
    Thanks again!

    1. Christiane
      3 months ago

      I have always experimented with decaf and regular– and half caf coffees. I often enjoy some decaf after dinner at night. My goal has been to enjoy coffee ONLY to the point at which I don’t “need” it to feel awake. How do I know what that point is? Well– if I don’t have coffee in a 24 hour period and then get a withdrawal headache when I don’t have it, then I know I’m drinking too much. And so I’ll wean myself off of caffeinated coffee–starting with half caf. Then moving to decaf. And then maybe going without coffee for several days or even weeks. Then I add it back when I want to. Hope this gives you some ideas.

  11. Olive Morgan
    3 months ago

    I really enjoy Dandelion Root Coffee. There is an instant Dandelion Coffee but it usually contains wheat here in the UK.
    Thank you for that interesting article on Coffee.

    1. Christiane
      3 months ago

      Worth looking into!

  12. KathrynElizabeth
    3 months ago

    Yes, Dr. Northrup…I also would appreciate your input re a good source of collagen to add to my coffee. AND, while you said “skip the sugar,” what about a very good honey?

    1. Christiane
      3 months ago

      It’s not collagen, but I really like the Bulletproof “Instamix” of powdered grass fed butter and brain octane oil ( with is a medium chain triglyceride mix). Available on line. Honey is fine!

  13. Julia
    3 months ago

    Morning (organic) coffee with a little cream is one of my best friends. xo

    1. Christiane
      3 months ago

      I so “get it”!!!

  14. Becky Schultz
    3 months ago

    I get my caffeine from Diet Coke. I know there’s bad stuff in that…aspartame, but other than that, how bad is Diet Coke?

    1. Christiane
      3 months ago

      Diet Coke is one of the most addictive foods on the planet. (Sorry). The excitotoxins in the aspartame plus the caffeine cause brain cells to get very excited….. before they die. Aspartame even gives people multiple sclerosis -like symptoms. But the drink gives you a very specific “buzz” that those addicted to Diet Coke can’t find elsewhere. Stop this habit by drinking lots of pure water with a pinch of good quality salt in in. It will take 3 days to completely detox your system from this. Camomile tea and water really help.

  15. Diane Demura
    3 months ago

    When I am home, I have one cup of black coffee in the morning, organic, paper filtered, spring water. If I’m at work, I have a Keurig brewed coffee. Do you see any difference in using the K-cups vs pot brewed?

    1. Christiane
      3 months ago

      Not really. I do exactly the same thing. And yes, that organic, paper filtered, spring water coffee is probably better. But it’s not all that important at the end of the day. Too many other things to be concerned about!!

  16. Megan Foster
    3 months ago

    I have my daily cuppa from a French press with full-cream milk (preferably raw milk when I can get it) and no sugar. My Brazilian sister-in-law told me that you don’t need sugar in good coffee, as the sugar masks the complex flavors – my turning point for ditching the sugar. My mum, who has recently been diagnosed with Parkinsons, hates coffee, so this article has (a) been reassuring and (b) given me another reason to be grateful for my “daily grind”.

    1. Christiane
      3 months ago

      Nice!! Your sister-in-law is correct. I have found that thing about sugar ( stevia in my case) to be true. As I now drink only really good coffee, I found that I don’t need it sweet anymore. This is quite new.

  17. Jane
    3 months ago

    Hi Dr. Northrup,
    I felt relief when I read this article as I was programmed to believe coffee was sinful/unhealthy. I have a question, though. I have read that coffee and caffeine can effect a woman’s creative centers and sex drive. Is there any truth to this?

    1. Christiane
      3 months ago

      I have not found this to be the case. Of course just about anything can become an addiction. And addictions of any kind are not good for creativity!!

  18. Cathy White
    3 months ago

    Dr. Northrup,
    Is there a good source of collagen that you can recommend? Thank you for the article on coffee.
    Cathy White

    1. Diane Demura
      3 months ago

      I love Ancient Nutrition brand collagens.

    2. Christiane
      3 months ago

      I use Great Lakes Collagen.

  19. Laura
    3 months ago

    i’ve been hooked on coffee w chocolate and sugar, coconut oil or MCT, collagen, and heavy grass fed cream for sometime now. I do half caf but it’s espresso plus dark roast.

  20. Ninfa Maria
    3 months ago

    I drink everyday one cup and a half of high quality, organic, non GMO coffee from Chiapas, Mex, with no sugar. It is delicious!

  21. Maggie
    3 months ago

    Thank you for this article! I am interested in finding out more about why it is better to have full fat dairy from grass-fed cows in coffee as opposed to non-dairy creamers. Thank you so much!

    1. Christiane
      3 months ago

      Non-dairy creamers are generally loaded with artificial ingredients and sugar. That’s why

  22. cindy craddock
    3 months ago

    thank you for the article. In the past I have read all the material about how bad coffee is for the body. I rarely drink it because of what I heard in the past. Now I can have 1 cup a day and not worry about the affect on my body.

  23. Gordana Mirkovic
    3 months ago

    I drink coffee daily, organic strong espresso after lunch and in the morning I prefer herbal one with adaptogens and medicinal mushrooms in it.

  24. Jennifer
    3 months ago

    My morning coffee tastes so good I feel guilty! I am lucky to have a husband who roasts his own coffee beans and grinds them each morning so I can’t get fresher than that! I add a shake of organic cinnamon and a drop of my local honey and instead of cream I use coconut milk! Delicious !!

    1. Christiane
      3 months ago

      What a lovely lovely morning ritual!!

  25. Janet
    3 months ago

    I drink at least 3-4 cups each day, black only for many years…started in my 20’s , am 76 and still moving foward

  26. Connie
    3 months ago

    What about women with diagnosed osteoporosis? Shouldn’t they avoid caffeinated coffee?

  27. Debbie Unterman
    3 months ago

    I feel good about this. I just stopped putting sugar in my coffee and am starting to use Organic. I also do use filters. Sounds like I’m doing it right. Oh – and real full fat half and half.

  28. ABBAS
    3 months ago

    i love coffee but when I study all this intersting paragraph I m afraid now I don’t like coffee a lot I usually take o lot thank you M D Christiane Northrup

  29. Tammy
    3 months ago

    My favorite creamer for coffee , is oatmilk. Of course organic. It really compliments my dark roast.

    1. Christiane
      3 months ago

      I recently discovered Macadamia nut milk. wonderful too!

  30. Barb Arney
    3 months ago

    Thank you for the tip on Dean’s Beans.

  31. michelle staples
    3 months ago

    I mostly used dehydrated coffee because I travel a lot, but what I do that seems to work for me is I add 1/4 tsp. of mushroom powder — a 7 mushroom mix. I also do not do dairy and instead drink a coconut/almond mix.

  32. Kusuma patel
    3 months ago

    I am a coffee lover & love my filter coffee with milk & sugar. I dislike the taste of it only when I am sick & when I am pregnant.

  33. Robert Austin
    3 months ago

    I administer a Facebook page celebrating coffee, named “Today’s coffee…” with a group of friends that photograph there morning beverages each day. My personal concoction is 16 oz. latte’ made with 2% steamed milk, and “San Francisco Bay” French Roast.

    1. Christiane
      3 months ago

      Thank you for this. What a lovely service you provide!!

  34. Shalini Singh
    3 months ago

    I drink black coffee with no sugar and I like it . Good to know the health benefits from your blog, of drinking coffee

  35. Gisele
    3 months ago

    I love my morning Java ! I’ve using whole fat organic coconut milk in my coffee. It is creamy and delicious!

  36. Linda Roy
    3 months ago

    I use to be a coffeehollic and drank it all day. What was I thinking. Now its 1-2 cups, sometimes decaf. At home it’s always organic. And an occasional latte also made at home.

  37. Marie
    3 months ago

    I enjoy your very informative newsletters!
    Thanks so much!

  38. Maggie Thomas
    3 months ago

    My daily morning ritual begins with my very own original cold brewed chai coffee made from Organic Fairtrade MOUNT HAGEN freeze-dried instant (oh no!!) coffee. I use one heaping Tablespoon of coffee with 8 ounces of unsweetened SoDelicious coconut milk and 8 ounces of filtered water and make my own version of “muddy chai” with organic ground ginger, cinnamon, turmeric, black pepper, nutmeg, cardamom, cloves, nutmeg and green leaf stevia.

    1. Christiane NOrthrup
      3 months ago

      I love the Mount Hagen brand. Very convenient. I use it too.

  39. KRW
    3 months ago

    Hi Christine,
    Coffee is my one treat after cutting out processed foods and almost all sugar! I use grass-fed heavy cream as it’s better metabolized. I do use honey to sweeten – after adding the cream. Then the benefits of the honey aren’t completely destroyed by the heat. Total sugar then is less than 2T per day if I have 2 cups. I’ve never felt a coffee buzz; but I LOVE the taste. Your piece verifies my instinct to drink it!

    Thanks for your great work bringing forth important health info – you blend mainstream medicine with energy medicine in an effective way that is easy to understand and implement!

    Regards,
    Krista

  40. Clara
    3 months ago

    We get so much contradicting health info today. I just listened to a podcast by the brain expert, Dr. Amen, of the Amen Clinic. He said coffee IS NOT good for the brain since it constricts blood vessels, in turn reducing blood flow to the brain, increasing the chance for Alzheimers and dementia. How do you reconcile this to your comment that coffee is good for the brain? Thanks for your insight.

  41. Philly
    3 months ago

    Thank you for debunking the myths about coffee and providing the science. I have been enjoying 2 cups each morning before breakfast and before doing anything else.

    It was a moment of mindful joy that I took fifteen minutes to savour on the advice of some self-help instructor in the early 1990s whose name I forget. Fifteen minutes solely for me in a life that was (then) full of sorrow and emotional abuse.

    Over time I changed and circumstances changed. Some by my choice. Some by serendipitous surprise. I now do daily meditation ahead of the coffee, but the coffee remains my start to the day in a life that while still full of challenges is gratifying, joyous and serene. (I wouldn’t have given it up even if you had cited science to condemn it.)

    1. Christiane Northrup
      3 months ago

      Clearly you are on your path and KNOW YOURSELF– which is truly the only way to live healthfully and joyfully!!

  42. Kimberly
    3 months ago

    Thank you for this information; it’s nice to affirm my daily enjoyment of a cup or two of coffee. I drink Organic Peruvian Chanchamayo with stevia and Ripple plant-based milk. I’ve been to the coffee farms in Peru and saw first-hand how they grow, harvest and roast. It was an amazing experience.

    1. Christiane Northrup
      3 months ago

      Isn’t it lovely to have all of that knowledge right with you are you enjoy the fruits of the coffee growers labor. Especially when it’s paid fairly!!

  43. Brenda
    3 months ago

    Talk about synchronicity! This morning I was debating about whether or not to have a cup. I go back and forth and due to my sensitivities if I have coffee one day and not the next I have severe withdrawals including migraines. So, based upon what you’ve said, moderation is key for me. One cup it is Thank you

  44. Mary
    3 months ago

    Great article! I’m passing it along.

  45. Brighid Desmond
    3 months ago

    What about bone loss? Is this a myth too?

    1. Christiane Northrup
      3 months ago

      The bone loss comes from the fact that coffee acts as a diuretic. So you “pee your bones” as it were. If an individual is lacking in adequate minerals, then coffee might speed up the process of bone loss. But if mineral intake is adequate and other factors are in balance, it shouldn’t be a problem. But every individual is different in this regard.

  46. Rmagrout
    3 months ago

    Good article on coffee.
    Thank you

  47. Deta
    3 months ago

    I’ve been drinking mycotoxin-free coffee for a few years. It is interesting that I no longer get a headache if I miss a day or two. I’ve been told it’s because my coffee is mycotoxin free. I always add finely ground pepper and some ground turmeric to each cup as well as some reishi and MCT oil and give it a spin in the blender. It is sweetened with stevia.

    1. Christiane Northrup
      3 months ago

      This is fascinating!! I too haven’t noticed a headache for the last year since switching to a good organic brand ( Dean’s Beans) . Hmmm

  48. Jan
    3 months ago

    What synchronicity! I was sitting at my computer, going through my emails, and just started debating whether to have a second cup of coffee… feeling that I shouldn’t even be drinking coffee at all. I am blood type O, a basic mesomorph and have been “recommended” by various research that I shout NOT be drinking coffee at all. However, I do enjoy it so, it’s helped me through many a stressful situation, and feel just not ready to give it up. At the moment I started debating for that second cup, there was your blog. Thank you, Christiane! I’ve been reading, listening and watching you for many years. Once again you have helped me understand myself… and given me permission to be me! Although, I probably should cut down on the coffee! 😉
    Many thanks to you for all you have done and will do, to help us all understand ourselves and each other. <3

    1. Christiane Northrup
      3 months ago

      I love synchronicity like this. BRAVO!! I am also blood type 0!

  49. SUNIL AGRAWAL
    3 months ago

    i drink green coffee one cup daily . no sugar no milk

  50. Sandy
    3 months ago

    Excellent post with very thorough information! Yes, I do drink coffee, two small cups a day and always before 11 am.
    For me I don’t feel any negative effects and I do drink it black and most often It’s organic.
    Thanks for the reassurance that I am not doing anything negative to my health and hopefully something positive instead!!

  51. Ginny
    3 months ago

    Hi, I drink mine black, or, occasionally bulletproof. Decaf, Vermont Coffee Company, Peet’s, Equal Exchange, Allegro – can’t always find Deans,

    1. Christiane Northrup
      3 months ago

      I order Dean’s online. Wonderful website! Very inspiring.

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