Adrenal Exhaustion

by Christiane Northrup, M.D.


The adrenal glands are your body’s primary “shock absorbers.” These two little thumb-sized glands sitting on top of your kidneys produce hormones including norepinephrine, cortisol and DHEA that allow you to respond to the conditions of your daily life in healthy and flexible ways.

Norepinephrine (also called adrenaline) is commonly thought of as the fight-or-flight hormone. It’s produced when something is (or you think it is) threatening. This hormone makes your heart pound, your blood rush to your heart and large muscle groups, your pupils widen, your brain sharpen, and your tolerance for pain increase—basically, it prepares you for battle. Modern-day battles are most likely things like pushing your body to keep going when it’s fatigued, dealing with a stressful job, and reacting with quick reflexes to avoid a traffic accident. Think of these adrenaline surges as withdrawals from a bank, to help you get through life’s rough spots. If you have gotten into the habit of withdrawing adrenaline from your account too often, you’ll eventually be overdrawn and your adrenal glands will be overwhelmed. Then, you’ll have too little adrenaline when you really need it.

Cortisol increases your appetite and energy level while toning down your immune system’s allergic and inflammatory responses. This hormone stimulates the storage and release of energy in the body, helps the body resist the stressful effects of infections, trauma, and temperature extremes, and helps you maintain stable emotions. Synthetic versions of cortisol—prednisone and cortisone, for example—are often prescribed to help people perk up and feel better so they will eat, drink, and move around more and therefore be better able to fight off illness or heal from an injury. Ideally, cortisol is released into the system only on an occasional basis, rather than in response to chronic stress. If cortisol levels become too high for too long, they may have undesirable side effects, including loss of bone density, muscle wasting, thinning of the skin, decreased ability to build protein, kidney damage, fluid retention, spiking blood sugar levels, weight gain, and increased vulnerability to bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts, allergies, parasites, and even cancer.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an androgen that is produced by both the adrenal glands and the ovaries. DHEA helps to neutralize cortisol’s immune-suppressant effect, thereby improving resistance to disease. (Cortisol and DHEA are inversely proportional to each other. When one is up, the other goes down.) DHEA also helps to protect and increase bone density, guards cardiovascular health by keeping “bad” cholesterol (LDL) levels under control, provides vitality and energy, sharpens the mind, and helps maintain normal sleep patterns. Like norepinephrine and cortisol, DHEA also improves your ability to recover from episodes of stress and trauma, overwork, temperature extremes, etc. And if a woman is experiencing a decline in libido due to falling testosterone levels, often it is declining DHEA levels that are at the root of the testosterone deficiency, as DHEA is the main ingredient the body uses to manufacture testosterone.

If the intensity and frequency of the stresses in your life—either those internally driven (such as your perceptions about your life) or those externally driven (such as having surgery or working the night shift)—become too great, then over time your adrenal glands will begin to become exhausted. This will mean that you are much more likely to suffer from fatigue and menopausal symptoms. And a woman in a state of adrenal exhaustion is likely to find herself at a distinct disadvantage when entering perimenopause, because perimenopause itself is an additional form of stress.

Adrenal exhaustion usually suggests that there are long-standing life problems in need of resolution. These issues will loom all the larger when seen with the no-nonsense mental clarity of perimenopause, but not only will adrenal exhaustion make the transition needlessly unpleasant, it also can deprive a woman of the resources she needs to address those issues and to take full advantage of the creative promise of the second half of her life.

Abnormal adrenaline and cortisol levels can result in mood disorders, sleep disturbances, reduced resistance to disease, and changes in vital circulation. Because these side effects are not uncomfortable enough to be intolerable, a self-destructive, adrenal-depleting lifestyle often continues. DHEA, which helps the body recover from this sort of chronic abuse, gets revved up full time instead of only episodically. Gradually the adrenal glands become seriously exhausted, with the first and most profound effect being their waning ability to produce DHEA. As levels of this restorative hormone fall, cortisol and adrenaline levels begin to fluctuate as well, as the adrenal glands attempt to fill increasingly impossible orders for more support.

The result is often relentless, debilitating fatigue that is the hallmark of adrenal exhaustion. Though this fatigue is often accompanied by depressed mood, irritability, and loss of interest in life, this doesn’t mean that the adrenal problem is necessarily the cause of the mood change, any more than similar problems are always caused by thyroid malfunction. That is why these emotional symptoms do not always go away with treatment—the underlying issues remain unresolved until they are specifically addressed by behavior and lifestyle changes.

Listen to Your Body

Here are some typical signs that your adrenals may need attention: You awaken feeling groggy and have difficulty dragging yourself out of bed. You can’t get going without that first cup or two of caffeinated coffee or tea. You not only rely on sugary snacks and caffeine to get through the day but find you actually crave sweets, particularly in the late morning or afternoon. (Perhaps you’ve even been diagnosed with hypoglycemia.) Your thinking is foggy and you have memory problems. You suffer from recurrent infections, headaches and depression. At night, though exhausted, you have trouble falling asleep as the worries of the day replay in your head and you suffer from insomnia. Ordinary stresses have an impact that is out of proportion to their importance. You wonder what happened to your interest in sex. If this description fits you, your adrenals may be running on empty, even if all your conventional medical tests are normal.

Conventional blood tests, taken at whatever time your doctor has scheduled your appointment, might indicate that your adrenals are normal. However, a better diagnostic approach will test your levels at different times of the day, which is much more likely to reveal an out-of-whack pattern of cortisol or DHEA secretion. Adrenal fatigue is characterized by cortisol levels that are too high at night and not high enough in the morning.

What Causes This

Unabated stress over long periods of time that is not addressed combined with a nutrient-poor diet is what usually leads to adrenal exhaustion.

Healing Alternatives

If an adrenal test shows that you are producing inadequate levels of adrenal hormones, several routes are available for increasing either DHEA, cortisol, or both. First, you can take the hormone directly. If you take DHEA, opt for small doses of pharmaceutical grade DHEA (5–10 mg/day, but possibly up to 25 mg once or twice a day). Regleson1 Have your levels retested every three months, and when levels return to the normal range, the dose should be gradually tapered until you’re off the hormone completely.

Some individuals require very small doses of hydrocortisone, which can be used safely and effectively if prescribed by a health care provider knowledgeable about how and when to use it.

Be aware that if you supplement your adrenal hormones in dosages that are too high, or if you take supplements for too long, the result can be permanent depression of adrenal function.

Spiritual and Holistic Options

A far better option over the long run is to restore adrenal health and function so your adrenals can eventually produce the hormones you need on their own. That will require making changes in the lifestyle that caused the adrenal depletion. Here are some suggestions:

  • Focus more on loving thoughts. Thoughts that bring you pleasure (like thinking about people you love, favorite pets, a delicious meal, or even a sweet memory) short-circuit the harm done by the body’s physiological reaction to stress. This learning to “think with your heart” may be challenging at first, but it’s definitely worth it. If you faithfully learn this and regularly pay attention to areas of your life that bring you joy and fulfillment, you will evoke biochemical changes in your body over time that will recharge your adrenal batteries. (For assistance, I recommend the training programs and books from The Institute of HeartMath.) In addition, do more things that bring you pleasure and make you laugh and fewer activities that feel like obligations. Spend more time with people who make you feel good and less with people who are draining. Dwell more on what you like about yourself and less on what you see as your limitations. In short, have more fun! Make pleasure a priority instead of a luxury.
  • Allow yourself to accept nurturing and affection. If you didn’t learn how to do this as a child, you may need to practice it. Every morning before you get up, spend a minute or two reveling in a memory of a time you felt loved. Do the same at night. Imagine your heart being filled with this love. Use affirmations that help you feel deserving of this nurturing and love.
  • Follow a healthy, whole foods diet with minimal sugar and adequate protein. (Every meal or snack should contain some protein.) Avoid caffeine because it whips your adrenals into a frenzy. Also avoid fasting or cleansing regimens because they can weaken you further.
  • Take a comprehensive multivitamin/mineral supplement.
  • Try herbal support, including:
    – Licorice root: This herb contains plant hormones that mimic the effects of cortisol. Start with a small amount and gradually work up to one-quarter teaspoon solid licorice root extract three times per day. Baschetti2 Make sure to monitor blood pressure, as licorice may increase blood pressure in susceptible individuals.
    – Siberian ginseng: One of the components of Siberian ginseng is related to a precursor for DHEA and cortisol. Try one 100 mg capsule two times a day. It can have a stimulating effect, though, so if it interferes with your sleep, take it before three p.m.
  • Get plenty of sleep: Sleep is the most effective approach to high adrenaline levels. Many women require eight to ten hours of sleep to function optimally. Try to go to bed by ten P.M. Getting to sleep on the earlier side of midnight is much more restorative to your adrenals than sleep that begins later in the night, even if you sleep late the next morning to get in your full amount of sleep.
  • Exercise regularly. Regular light-to-moderate exercise is helpful, but not so much that you feel depleted afterward. Pushing yourself beyond your limits weakens your adrenals even further, so start slowly—even if it’s only walking down your street and back. Then build up slowly.
  • Get more exposure to natural sunlight. This is not only good for your adrenal glands, but it boosts vitamin D, as well. Sunbathe only in the early morning or later afternoon, however, never in midday; and never get enough exposure to burn or even redden your skin. Work up to ten to fifteen minutes of exposure three to four times per week. 
  • Prioritize. Make a list of your most important activities and commitments, and then let everything else go. Don’t agree to a new task or commitment unless it’s something that will recharge your batteries.

Learn More — Additional Resources



  1. Regleson, W., et al. (1994). Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) — the “mother steroid.” I. Immunologic action. Ann. New York Acad. Sciences, 719, 553-563; Yen, S. S. C. (1995). Replacement of DHEA in aging men and women: Potential remedial effects. Ann. New York Acad. Science, 774, 128–142.
  2. Baschetti, R. (1995). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and licorice (Letter). New Zealand Medical Journal, 108, 156–157; Golan, R. (1995). Optimal wellness (p. 203). New York: Ballantine Books.Stormer, F. C., et al. (1993). Glycyrrhizic acid in licorice: Evaluation of health hazard. Federal Chemistry & Toxicology, 31, 303–312.
Christiane Northrup, M.D.

Christiane Northrup, M.D.

Christiane Northrup, M.D., is a visionary pioneer and a leading authority in the field of women’s health and wellness. Recognizing the unity of body, mind, and spirit, she empowers women to trust their inner wisdom, their connection with Source, and their ability to truly flourish.


Add comment
  1. Jacqueline
    3 days ago

    I was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency by a progressive doctor. She meant well, but she missed the boat completely. For some people, the adrenal-busting cycle is caused by sleep disorders like sleep apnea. A healthy lifestyle alone (or supplements or other treatments that only target adrenals) can’t fix the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysruption caused by sleep apnea, and many of the systems will overlap. Nocturnal breathing pauses cause a stress response, elevating cortisol, increasing exhaustion, sabotaging sleep quality and all of the regenerative work our bodies are meant to do during sleep. For women, sleep apnea is likely to go undiagnosed, because doctors think it is so rare in women that they don’t usually consider it as a differential diagnosis (even in women with PCOS, who are known to have the same rate of sleep apnea as men). For young and slender women, sleep apnea is unlikely to be diagnosed until it has already caused long-standing biological changes, even if a woman has classic symptoms of sleep apnea like loud snoring, observed pauses in sleep breathing, and significant daytime sleepiness. Sleep dysruption is a form of chronic stress, so it can overlap with adrenal insufficiency, and treating sleep problems can be a big help to solving the adrenal problems.

  2. Kir
    1 month ago

    Hey girls, I too am in the same boat at you. I am 49 and sure I have been Perimenopausal for several years. This year has been the worst. I am one giant hot flash 24/7, heat Palps, panic attacks, missing periods, edema all over, hair falling out (all comprehensive thyroid tests are normal), depression, out of control weight gain even from eating almost nothing, horrible sleep, digestive problems, gas and bloating all day, choaking on mucus 24/7 despite eating gluten-free, dairy-free and sugar-free, Lyme disease, bad, I mean really bad adrenal fatigue which worsened after my mom’s death two years ago, pain all over the body, severe fatigue, and about 30 other symptoms. I have been sick for over 20 years with Lyme, Epstein-Barr, mycoplasma, mold toxicity, Candida, hidden bio-unavailable copper toxicity, a clotting disorder from the Lyme, and sporadic HHV-6 and Cytomegalovirus, with no help. I live in Southern California. If anyone knows of a naturopath or integrative medical doctor who measures up to Dr. Northrop’s calibur, please, please email me Thanks so much.

    1. Kir
      2 weeks ago

      Marie, I tried to send you a reply to your email, but it got returned to me. I wanted to thank you for sending me the info, but explained shy in my reply to you why I don’t think your doctor can help. If you see this, please send me another email with an address I can get back to you at. Thanks.


  3. Christine davies
    2 months ago

    I really need help as can’t take the pumping feeling of fear. Exhustion beyond anything 8ve ever known. Bloating weight gain and can’t get it off..Low mood brain fog no energy and when push myself my whole body feels bruised and feet and legs hurt and I seem to swell up x

  4. wendy
    3 months ago

    Peri menopause…

    it hit me when i was 44, panic attacks every hour, 30 pounds of water weight in 6 months, and low blood sugar EVERY hour and a half.
    What have i tried? EVERYTHING, what has worked? only Vitamin C soo far, but that was for the panic attacks, i will now try licorice as i CANNOT tolerate drugs of any kind.
    Water weight stopped at 165lb, i WAS 135lbs. I am 5’6″
    My Mom had said it was all the calories, but my meals are soo small, just enough to keep blood sugar level, that they average out to be 3 meals a day plus snacks.
    Anyway, i haven’t gained or lost a thing in 6 years since it started and my calories have actually gone done.
    I thought that my Aldosterone was high, but it came back fine, but my Insulin was high and Insulin can cause Water Retention.
    I have now returned from hell, no Heart Palps in the night, no waking every hour, no panic attack anymore.
    Thank you God :)
    Now lets have Mother Nature release me from this Edema all over :)
    Come on…….please.

    I think it will, and this is all gonna be a bad memory.

    Hope this helps someone.

    1. wendy
      3 months ago

      I was tested for Cortisol issues, and it all came back “Normal” but my Endocrinologist was checking for Addison’s or Cushing’s, and i had neither.
      But i KNOW i had Adrenal Fatigue due to the change of life WITHOUT A DOUBT.
      The Heart Palps by the way, would come right around the time of my period, all though i was skipping periods and still have not completely reach “Menopause” yet, my left ovary isn’t working any more….but the right one is !!! :) arrrg.
      WHY the Palps around the period?
      my brain hurts trying to figure this out…too much Estrogen? not enough Progesterone?, …or low Estrogen??
      just when i think i have figured it out, i dont HaHa, crazy

      any insight
      Dr. Northrup ?

  5. Rose Marie
    4 months ago

    Well that explains it Dr. Northrup! After a difficult winter I was on my way to rejuvination and ran into a road hazard without warning. I have been freaking out ever since. Very concerned someone else will hit it and not be so lucky. I have withdrawn from my usual uplifting activities and feel as if I will emerg reborn. Living by a motto of “Eat right, get plenty of rest and exercise” has worked for decades, menopause is a trip! I will be preparing delicious meals to savor and add Licorice and Ginseng to replace caffine. Practice having more fun while “Celebrating peace and love always”. I was shaken hard enough in the accident that my pinky and ring fingers are numb, it was spreding to my palm and wrist but numbness has receeded to fingers. I was restless and having nightmares too. My hump on the back of my neck flattened. I am doing PT to keep it away. Sleeping with arms straight and down seems to help too. Driving can be stressful as it requires we be more alert. I had taken a side road to get away from a driver who was swerving and driving at inconsistant speeds and a tailgater who had been behind me for sometime on a dangerous two lane road know for head ons and off road accidents. Hummm, getting back to focusing on love and having more fun. . .Now!!!

  6. Agness
    5 months ago

    Not included in the above piece by Dr Northrup about adrenal exhaustion is information about the affects of sustained stress on the adrenals leading to elevated aldosterone production. With work/life stress, extreme exercise and chronic dehydration (many people don’t get enough fluids) the adrenals will produce elevated levels of the hormone aldosterone in order to try to maintain a type of homeostasis. Aldosterone will push potassium, zinc and magnesium out of the body resulting in impaired immune function, poor digestion, compromised liver function, poorer iron absorption, and increased risks for oxidative stress.

    Zinc is critical in cellular replication and there are many zinc receptors in breast tissue. It is also important towards healthy pancreatic function, including the production of digestive enzymes.

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for liver functioning in its metabolic functioning, including detoxification. Due to modern farming techniques many diets include lowered levels of magnesium so having aldosterone from stress and dehydration will further compromise physiology.

    Based on my personal experience of trying to restore from such a situation (brought on by extended breastfeeding), it is important to both reduce life stressors but also to approach the body from a rehydration standpoint when trying to rebalance to a healthy level.

    If you tend to be dehydrated and don’t get thirsty, know that your body is demonstrating stressed adrenals. Try to rehydrate using an electrolyte solution containing targeted nutrients which will trigger the Sodium-Glucose Cotransport System allowing your body to absorb fluids more readily from the small intestine (water otherwise is reabsorbed in the large intestine). I’m using CellFood, Essential Minerals, sea salt, sodium bicarbonate, and table sugar in water and I have noticed a big difference in how my body is using water. You can also look into an over-the-counter product such as DripDrop.

    Simple tests that can be done if you are concerned about prolonged stress and dehydration are red blood cell magnesium and serum zinc which can point out if you are experiencing elevated aldosterone.

  7. Susan Williams
    5 months ago

    Hi, I am at wits end…..

    I found your site by searching again,,,,for the umpteenth time in 2 years I have found you…..Being in health care I am very aware of the anatomy and physiology of the body. (was my fav subject) I went back to confirm what my education has taught me….after being diagnosed with a Blanket Version of Dysautomia…..To make a long story short,,,my cardio was lazy and I fired him and found out I had a rare disease called MALS. Median Acruate Ligament Syndrome..I had lap surgery that helped immensely…After being hurt on the job, being considered disabled, lost my job, fiancé of 10 years suddenly died at 50, Brother being on life support after being hit head on by a drunk driver and taking care him for nine months, three heart attacks for me,,,,,,all this in 6 years…I am pretty stressed out….:) I noticed that any emotion good or bad raises my BP, adrenaline surges and even my hair will stand up on my body. Confirmed that the adrenal surges cause the latter….BP is all over the place…my new cardio is in favor of HRT…she believes females need them and the case study was too short and inconsistent….What do YOU suggest? I am a vitamin junkie,,,,thyroid, cortisol, levels are supposedly fine…..I have also read that the hypothalamus and amygdala is a factor the HPA axis…..thoughts? I greatly appreciate your time…..S.W.

  8. heidi
    6 months ago

    I was diagnosed with severe adrenal fatigue and have been under a naturopathic dr’s treatment for months and have improved somewhat. in the beginning when I crashed, my blood pressure was very low. Now that I am on the road to healing (and its such a long road), the bottom number of my blood pressure continues to rise until now it is almost always in the upper ’90’s. The top number has remained great. Have you heard of this before? I’m wondering what is causing my bottom number to rise and what I can do about it?

  9. heidi
    6 months ago

    I was diagnosed with severe adrenal fatigue and have been under a naturopathic dr’s treatment for months and have improved somewhat. in the beginning when I crashed, my blood pressure was very low. Now that I am on the road to healing (and its such a long road), the bottom number of my blood pressure continues to rise until now it is almost always in the upper ’90’s. The top number has remained great. Have you heard of this before? I’m wondering what is causing my bottom number to rise.

  10. Sonia Heijames
    6 months ago

    Hi Ladies…I too have all the symptoms above and can relate to you all…I am only 39 and this is my third year…I too feel like this is never going to end.I eat very clean…no dairy wheat gluten or meat…I exercise yoga twice to three times a week and walk….I have tried every holistic avenue… But am still trying and will not give up…I do believe the way we live today is a massive cause…Being busy has become the new NORM….I wish us all love and luck…love sonia xzz

  11. dorothy zelder
    6 months ago

    i have been working on this for 10 years. Not much help or improvement swould like to see you …??? Thank you

  12. Sandra
    6 months ago

    I have been diagnosed with low cortisol levels and am waiting to see a specialist. I have learned over the years how to control stress, so it doesn’t make sense that it could be the cause. I do have all of the symptoms listed. Hope I get some answers soon.

  13. Loni
    6 months ago

    I was experiencing hair loss in huge amounts. My stress was through the roof last few years . My mom passed away of cancer seven months ago. Finally saw an endo Dr and found out my DHEA levels are soaring. My testosterone high. I have Pcos and Dr found a small benign mass on my left adrenal gland. I pretty much feel like crap all the time. Major panic attacks and anxiety, exhaustion, weight gain, stressed, depressed, headaches, body aches, left kidney pain. Now I have fast heart beat and high blood pressure. I’m on Aldactone and couple other meds. I just have severs fear if this small mass since cancer is in my family. The Dr thinks nothing of it as it seems to be build up hormone. I am afraid it will turn into something worse. And my anxiety makes me fear the worst. They are saying my thyroid is fine but I don’t believe that. Any suggestions? Thank you…….

  14. Liz
    7 months ago

    I had my saliva tests done, and the results showed that my cortisol level wouldn’t even register a number after 11am, dipped further off the grid at 4pm and a slight surge at 11pm. Understanding the inverse relationship with DHEA, that level was “off the chart high”. I’ve been on Adreneltone and cortisol manager supplement for almost 3 months and the fatigue only seems to be the same if not a little worse (I actually fell asleep during my daughters dance competition! )
    What should I do? I’m at the end of my hypothetical rope.

    1. Natalie
      6 months ago

      Hi Liz, have you tried eliminating all refined sugar, alcohol, Gluten and dairy? Clean non toxic diet..I have found this beneficial..

  15. Jenq
    7 months ago

    I got my saliva test results and my DHEA is extemely low. My cortisol is normal-ish at all four times of the day. Years ago I felt revved all the time and was a slight 105 lbs I have hardly changed my diet but in two years had more stress job change, less sleep, and now am up twenty plus lbs!! I am now depressed over it and have little to no umph like before. I am taking DHEA cream and licorice but only feel jittery then tired after. I eat a ketogenic Paleo diet as well. Iam 43 andfeeling worse than I have in over 20 years. I feel like there is no hope…

  16. Sue Wendel
    7 months ago

    What type of specialist (i.e., doctor, naturopath, etc.) is the most effective to help with this treatment? I have had thyroid issues since my 20s (I’m now in my 50s), including the periodic loss of hair in large spots on my head, weight gain (now to include the lovely layer of fat around my midsection), exhaustion after workouts, and on and on. I have also been told I have adrenal exhaustion. I would really appreciate some guidance.

  17. Nanci D.
    10 months ago

    I was put on HC by my integrative hormonal doctor but after getting the results in early October of a very low cortisol level in the morning, then a very high cortisol level at noon, then a bit low in the evening and then slightly high at night. I was told to take adaptogens by those in the know but I listened to my doctor and now I dread the decision. did I really need to take HC? no amount of HC made me feel better and in fact only raised my blood sugar and pressure. he says I have a maladapted HPA axis from chemotherapy I had in 2009. I have a very high DHEAS and testosterone level too. I want to get off HC but finding it quite difficult. my doctor said the low doses I am on now are only shutting down my own production and I might as well just stop but others have told me just stopping would be very dangerous. I am currently down to 7.5mg (sometimes take 10mg) I am full of anxiety, suffering from shakes/jitters everyday. I was given buspar and klonopin by a shrink who thinks I am nuts. I don’t know what to do but get off and retest cortisol to see if things have changed since October. I have been under enormous stress this past year due to the constant excruciating pain I have to endure from severe sciatica/Spondy from a fall on ice last winter. I also lost my smell and taste (anosmia) that a virus caused and the two created a very stressful period in my life where my adrenals took a huge hit. I don’t know how to get passed this and what to do. I feel AWFUL!!!!! Please HELP!!!!

    1. Diane Carol
      9 months ago

      I have been in a similar situation regarding pain. Three years of not sitting and feeling like my back and legs are on fire. What is turning my life around is a book I just finished called, “The Great Pain Deception ” by Steve Orzanish. It makes clear how stress and pain work together which alters the entire body chemistry. The supplements can help, The 27years of pain, stress, and suffering that the author of this book experienced is dramatic. He thought he could never heal. He did, and shares his journey out of stress suffering and pain and clearly shows those that are willing how they can find their way to healing. There is a way to get back in balance.

  18. Ora Byrd
    10 months ago

    This is one of the most informative then instructive articles I have ever read. Thank you for the education then practical advice that will help me & a lot of other women out there.

  19. Molly Mackinnon
    11 months ago


  20. Molly Mackinnon
    11 months ago

    I appreciate your expertise, affirming the science of the issue, and the feeling of relief I experience, knowing that I am not losing my mind!

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